KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

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KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

WA7SPY
I just ordered a KPA100 with the auto tuner for my KX3. In anticipation of the arrival of the amp  I was looking at the operating manual online and did not see any recommended power setting for operating the amp with digital modes. I plan to use the amp for PSK31. What is the recommended max power setting for the amp using PSK31 with a KX3?

Thanks,
Glenn Maclean WA7SPY
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Matt Zilmer-3
In Navy-Marine Corps MARS, we use a *lot* of digital modes, including
PSK31 and a double handful of others.  On this KX3/KXPA100, I normally
use no more than 25W for PSK and a little more for some of the others.
On MT63, I use 30W.  Most data modes don't need a lot of SNR to
decode.  It also depends on transmission length.  If I'm going to
transmit MT63 for five minutes straight, I run the power down to 20W.

I'm not sure there is a recommended output power setting for data
modes using the KX3/KXPA100, but you can find out yourself by
monitoring the PA.X temp on the VFO B display (your room temperature
is different from others').  If you see the temp rise to more than
you're comfortable with, back down on the power.  Using the settings
stated above keeps the KXPA temp at comfortable levels at this
station, usually < 50C, but sometimes a bit over.  The amp will
protect itself by lowering output power if the temp runs too hot. Like
everything Elecraft makes, the hardware and software are very robust.

73,
matt W6NIA


On Fri, 21 Feb 2014 19:43:42 -0800, you wrote:

>I just ordered a KPA100 with the auto tuner for my KX3. In anticipation of the arrival of the amp  I was looking at the operating manual online and did not see any recommended power setting for operating the amp with digital modes. I plan to use the amp for PSK31. What is the recommended max power setting for the amp using PSK31 with a KX3?
>
>Thanks,
>Glenn Maclean WA7SPY
Matt Zilmer, W6NIA
--
"Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will
spend the first four sharpening the axe." -A. Lincoln
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Jim Brown-10
In reply to this post by WA7SPY
On 2/21/2014 7:43 PM, WA7SPY wrote:
> I was looking at the operating manual online and did not see any recommended power setting for operating the amp with digital modes.

Elecraft output stages are very well protected. In general, I feel
comfortable running them "balls to the wall" with keydown modes, with
all the lights lit. With well matched antennas, I run keydown modes at
full power. If the output stage gets warm, the fan will run faster, and
if that isn't enough, the rig will back off the drive.

Remember that the WSJT modes are "weak signal" modes, NOT low power
modes. There is a big difference. We may get lots of distance per watt
and be happy with QRP for easy paths, but for the most difficult paths
(EME, transcontinental 160M), great digital ops pile on the watts and
use their best antennas. I do a lot of QRP, but I also know when to turn
on the big amp. :)

73, Jim K9YC
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Richard Ferch
In reply to this post by WA7SPY
On 2/21/2014 7:43 PM, WA7SPY wrote:
 > What is the recommended max power setting for the amp using PSK31
with a KX3?

In the K3, the limiting factor in some digital modes (notably PSK) is
not thermal capability of the radio or amplifier, it is linearity. The
linearity limit depends on the particular digital mode in use, and it
may also vary depending on the mode used in the radio. For PSK31 and its
higher-speed brethren, using the radio's DATA A mode, power settings no
higher than half the maximum power rating of the transmitter should be
used. This will ensure that the maximum instantaneous peaks of the
transmitted signal are not clipped (in PSK these peaks can be up to
twice as high as the average transmitted power). I can't speak from
personal experience for the KX3, but given the similarity in the way the
transmitter power is controlled, I would expect it to be the same as the
K3. Using the KXPA100, keeping the power setting below 50 watts should
avoid non-linearity.

73,
Rich VE3KI
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Cookie
In reply to this post by WA7SPY
I don't think that Elecraft recommends any particular power.  The amplifier will put out full power with acceptable distortion, but the lower quality receivers of others will easily overload and if you use more than a few watts it will prevent the use of the pass band by your neighbors and you will not be popular with them.  They will tell you as they all want to be in the same SSB pass band so that they can see everybody at one time.  Elecraft can't do anything about the quality of their competitors receivers.
 
Willis 'Cookie' Cooke, TDXS DX Chairman
K5EWJ & Trustee N5BPS, USS Cavalla, USS Stewart


________________________________
 From: WA7SPY <[hidden email]>
To: "[hidden email]" <[hidden email]>
Sent: Friday, February 21, 2014 9:43 PM
Subject: [Elecraft] KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?
 

I just ordered a KPA100 with the auto tuner for my KX3. In anticipation of the arrival of the amp  I was looking at the operating manual online and did not see any recommended power setting for operating the amp with digital modes. I plan to use the amp for PSK31. What is the recommended max power setting for the amp using PSK31 with a KX3?

Thanks,
Glenn Maclean WA7SPY
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Lynn W. Taylor, WB6UUT
In reply to this post by WA7SPY
For PSK-31, you really want to run the minimal amount of power necessary.

Remember that the entire PSK-31 subband fits in your receiver filters --
you don't tune the VFO at all.

If you transmit a strong signal, and propagation is good, I'll be able
to work you, but when my receiver AGC cuts in all the rest of the PSK-31
stations on the band will go away.

If I happened to be working one of those other stations, my QSO is over.

As a rule of thumb, you don't want to exceed half the output power,
unless the amp is rated for 100% key down.  Monitor the temperature.

50 watts is a lot of power on PSK-31.

73 -- Lynn

On 2/21/2014 7:43 PM, WA7SPY wrote:

> I just ordered a KPA100 with the auto tuner for my KX3. In anticipation of the arrival of the amp  I was looking at the operating manual online and did not see any recommended power setting for operating the amp with digital modes. I plan to use the amp for PSK31. What is the recommended max power setting for the amp using PSK31 with a KX3?
>
> Thanks,
> Glenn Maclean WA7SPY
> ______________________________________________________________
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

KC6CNN
I run 25 watts on my K3. I adjusted it by watching my peaks on a scope. At
25 watts and my alc set I have a clean signal. There are those that splat
more power and we all see them in the waterfall. 25 watts will work the
world on PSK.
Just my observations and my .02 cents.
73 Gerald
 On Feb 22, 2014 9:40 AM, "Lynn W. Taylor, WB6UUT" <
[hidden email]> wrote:

> For PSK-31, you really want to run the minimal amount of power necessary.
>
> Remember that the entire PSK-31 subband fits in your receiver filters --
> you don't tune the VFO at all.
>
> If you transmit a strong signal, and propagation is good, I'll be able to
> work you, but when my receiver AGC cuts in all the rest of the PSK-31
> stations on the band will go away.
>
> If I happened to be working one of those other stations, my QSO is over.
>
> As a rule of thumb, you don't want to exceed half the output power, unless
> the amp is rated for 100% key down.  Monitor the temperature.
>
> 50 watts is a lot of power on PSK-31.
>
> 73 -- Lynn
>
> On 2/21/2014 7:43 PM, WA7SPY wrote:
>
>> I just ordered a KPA100 with the auto tuner for my KX3. In anticipation
>> of the arrival of the amp  I was looking at the operating manual online and
>> did not see any recommended power setting for operating the amp with
>> digital modes. I plan to use the amp for PSK31. What is the recommended max
>> power setting for the amp using PSK31 with a KX3?
>>
>> Thanks,
>> Glenn Maclean WA7SPY
>> ______________________________________________________________
>> Elecraft mailing list
>> Home: http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/elecraft
>> Help: http://mailman.qth.net/mmfaq.htm
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>>
>> This list hosted by: http://www.qsl.net
>> Please help support this email list: http://www.qsl.net/donate.html
>>
>>
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Doug VE3VS
In reply to this post by WA7SPY
Hi Glenn,
I started using PSK31 many, many years ago, when it was first introduced by a ham in the UK. It was made very clear to operators that minimum power should always be used for a QSO.  It was suggested that more than 10 watts was excessive. As mentioned in one of the other replies, many transmissions can fall within the receiver passband when using this mode. If you, or anyone else uses much higher power, that strongest signal will "take over" the passband on most receivers, spoiling other QSOs that are going on at the time.

I have noticed over the past five years or more there has been a steady increase in the power being used by thoughtless or unknowing operators. As a result of this power creep, I have drifted away from a mode that I once thoroughly enjoyed.

With your KX3, you should not normally need an amp to use PSK31.

Doug, VE3VS
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Don Wilhelm-4
Doug,

While low power may have been the recommendation, I started in PSK31 in
2000 when I had only a K2/10.  I ran it in the 5 to 10 watt range.  When
I revealed my power level, many ops asked why I was running only that
much power.

So the "push for higher power" has been going on since shortly after the
beginning of PSK31.

While I do use it occasionally, that factor and the preponderance of
"hello, brag sheet, goodbye" QSOs has soured me on the mode.  It used to
be a lot of keyboard to keyboard ragchew QSOs, but that is rare these
days.  No opportunity to get to know something about the ham you are in
QSO with.

73,
Don W3FPR

On 2/22/2014 5:05 PM, Doug VE3VS wrote:

> Hi Glenn,
> I started using PSK31 many, many years ago, when it was first introduced by
> a ham in the UK. It was made very clear to operators that minimum power
> should always be used for a QSO.  It was suggested that more than 10 watts
> was excessive. As mentioned in one of the other replies, many transmissions
> can fall within the receiver passband when using this mode. If you, or
> anyone else uses much higher power, that strongest signal will "take over"
> the passband on most receivers, spoiling other QSOs that are going on at the
> time.
>
> I have noticed over the past five years or more there has been a steady
> increase in the power being used by thoughtless or unknowing operators. As a
> result of this power creep, I have drifted away from a mode that I once
> thoroughly enjoyed.
>
> With your KX3, you should not normally need an amp to use PSK31.
>

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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

KC6CNN
I agree with Don! I like to chat, learn about the op or Qth. It is a major
draw back to Jt 65 or Jt9.
 On Feb 22, 2014 4:26 PM, "Don Wilhelm" <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Doug,
>
> While low power may have been the recommendation, I started in PSK31 in
> 2000 when I had only a K2/10.  I ran it in the 5 to 10 watt range.  When I
> revealed my power level, many ops asked why I was running only that much
> power.
>
> So the "push for higher power" has been going on since shortly after the
> beginning of PSK31.
>
> While I do use it occasionally, that factor and the preponderance of
> "hello, brag sheet, goodbye" QSOs has soured me on the mode.  It used to be
> a lot of keyboard to keyboard ragchew QSOs, but that is rare these days.
>  No opportunity to get to know something about the ham you are in QSO with.
>
> 73,
> Don W3FPR
>
> On 2/22/2014 5:05 PM, Doug VE3VS wrote:
>
>> Hi Glenn,
>> I started using PSK31 many, many years ago, when it was first introduced
>> by
>> a ham in the UK. It was made very clear to operators that minimum power
>> should always be used for a QSO.  It was suggested that more than 10 watts
>> was excessive. As mentioned in one of the other replies, many
>> transmissions
>> can fall within the receiver passband when using this mode. If you, or
>> anyone else uses much higher power, that strongest signal will "take over"
>> the passband on most receivers, spoiling other QSOs that are going on at
>> the
>> time.
>>
>> I have noticed over the past five years or more there has been a steady
>> increase in the power being used by thoughtless or unknowing operators.
>> As a
>> result of this power creep, I have drifted away from a mode that I once
>> thoroughly enjoyed.
>>
>> With your KX3, you should not normally need an amp to use PSK31.
>>
>>
> ______________________________________________________________
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K3 # 6294
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Jack Chomley
In reply to this post by Don Wilhelm-4
Don,

I go hide on the WARC bands for PSK31 these days :-) Too many big guns on the other bands,  I have a hard time trying to filter them out, my receiver always gets swamped!

73,

Jack VK4JRC

Club.    www.cqara.org.au
Member WIA SARL ARRL
GQRP       #14392
QRPARCI #15068
VKQRP.    #833

> On 23 Feb 2014, at 8:26 am, Don Wilhelm <[hidden email]> wrote:
>
> Doug,
>
> While low power may have been the recommendation, I started in PSK31 in 2000 when I had only a K2/10.  I ran it in the 5 to 10 watt range.  When I revealed my power level, many ops asked why I was running only that much power.
>
> So the "push for higher power" has been going on since shortly after the beginning of PSK31.
>
> While I do use it occasionally, that factor and the preponderance of "hello, brag sheet, goodbye" QSOs has soured me on the mode.  It used to be a lot of keyboard to keyboard ragchew QSOs, but that is rare these days.  No opportunity to get to know something about the ham you are in QSO with.
>
> 73,
> Don W3FPR
>
>> On 2/22/2014 5:05 PM, Doug VE3VS wrote:
>> Hi Glenn,
>> I started using PSK31 many, many years ago, when it was first introduced by
>> a ham in the UK. It was made very clear to operators that minimum power
>> should always be used for a QSO.  It was suggested that more than 10 watts
>> was excessive. As mentioned in one of the other replies, many transmissions
>> can fall within the receiver passband when using this mode. If you, or
>> anyone else uses much higher power, that strongest signal will "take over"
>> the passband on most receivers, spoiling other QSOs that are going on at the
>> time.
>>
>> I have noticed over the past five years or more there has been a steady
>> increase in the power being used by thoughtless or unknowing operators. As a
>> result of this power creep, I have drifted away from a mode that I once
>> thoroughly enjoyed.
>>
>> With your KX3, you should not normally need an amp to use PSK31.
>
> ______________________________________________________________
> Elecraft mailing list
> Home: http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/elecraft
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> Post: mailto:[hidden email]
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Bill Frantz
In reply to this post by KC6CNN
When I went back to New Hampshire last Christmas, I decided that
the trip would be a rag chew trip. Since the only radio I had
was the Small Wonder Labs PSK-20 -- The K3 is too big to carry
and I don't yet have a KX3 -- it had to be rag chewing on 20M
PSK. I found a number of people to chat with and had a good time
on the radio.

I have a few thoughts on how to encourage rag chewing. Since
people are used to the "5NN QRZ" type of interchange, start
chatting early in the QSO. I use macros for the boiler plate --
name, QTH, and call signs and use the keyboard for everything
else. I'm lucky that after 40+ years as a computer programmer, I
can type quite rapidly. Don't worry about typing slowly however.
Rag chewing isn't a contest or a DX pileup.

In my first exchange after exchanging call signs, I try to give
meaningful signal reports, I'll start with:

Hi OM, you are 569 569 569
and then run my QTH macro. If the other OP has already sent a
name I'll use it in place of "OM". Later in the QSO, if the
other OP has already described the station, I'll try to include
something about his station when I describe mine. By then we
should be ready to branch out and talk about ARES/RACES,
contesting, DX, WX, family, Christmas dinner -- anything that
might come up.

It doesn't always work, but then just move on and do/answer
another CQ.

As to being overpowered by strong stations, the K3 with a 250 Hz
filter works wonders. However, for me, the real problem stations
have been local running well under 50 watts. When you're in the
target of a beam 1/4 mile away, it doesn't take much power to
overload the A/D converter driving the computer.

The PSK-20 doesn't have any narrow filters like the K3 does, but
in New Hampshire there aren't any close by PSK operators either.
I rarely see any New England stations on my waterfall. (20
meters is that way. I had a devil of a time working Nevada from
the Los Gatos too.)

Now there are times and places for rag chewing. Contests, DX
pileups, and rare opening aren't them. At times when it is
appropriate, try to encourage it.

Cheers - Bill, AE6JV

On 2/23/14 at 2:46 PM, [hidden email] (Jack Chomley) wrote:

>I go hide on the WARC bands for PSK31 these days :-) Too many
>big guns on the other bands,  I have a hard time trying to
>filter them out, my receiver always gets swamped!

On 2/22/14 at 2:41 PM, [hidden email] (Gerald Manthey) wrote:

>I agree with Don! I like to chat, learn about the op or Qth. It is a major
>draw back to Jt 65 or Jt9.
>
>On Feb 22, 2014 4:26 PM, "Don Wilhelm" <[hidden email]> wrote:
>
>>Doug,
>>
>>...
>>
>>While I do use [PSK] occasionally, that factor and the preponderance of
>>"hello, brag sheet, goodbye" QSOs has soured me on the mode.  It used to be
>>a lot of keyboard to keyboard ragchew QSOs, but that is rare these days.
>>No opportunity to get to know something about the ham you are in QSO with.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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(408)356-8506      | because I can get fruits and | 16345
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Bill Turner
In reply to this post by Doug VE3VS
ORIGINAL MESSAGE:          (may be snipped)

On 2/22/2014 2:05 PM, Doug VE3VS wrote:
> If you, or
> anyone else uses much higher power, that strongest signal will "take over"
> the passband on most receivers, spoiling other QSOs that are going on at the
> time.

REPLY:

This has been true forever, not just with PSK31, and this is why
narrowband receivers were invented in the first place. PSK31 is a very
narrowband mode so why not receive accordingly? Narrow your RX bandwidth
down to 100 Hz or so and the problem goes away and everyone can run
whatever power they like.

73, Bill W6WRT

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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

WA7SPY
In reply to this post by Bill Frantz
Thank you for all the replies they were very informative. In my original post I stated KPA100. It should have been KXPA100 my bad on my part. Most of you figured out what I meant.

I agree about the hi and bye PSK31 QSO's these days. That being said I will say I have had some really nice rag chew QSO's lately on PSK31. I typically start turning my power down during a QSO to see how low I can go and still have a good copy.

I do have my KX3 connected to a Hard Rock 50, 50 watt amplifier. I run the Hard Rock at 20 watts or less on PSK31.

In regard to the KXPA100 my original question was to find out what the max output power would be safe to go to without causing damage to the amp. If I am correct the answer is the amp will protect itself and automatically throttle itself back if the temp to the finals gets too hot.

Now in regard to the KX3 without the amp 2-3 watts is recommended for PSK31. What does 2 -3 watts driving the KXPA100 equate to for output power from the amp. I will be using the Elecraft cable set to integrate the amp. So from what I have read that means the PA menu is selected to on on the KX3. That means the power control on the KX3 is re-indexed. So does that mean it is safe to run in the 20-30 watt range with the amp without over driving the KX3 for PSK31?

Thank you
Glenn Maclean WA7SPY

> On Feb 22, 2014, at 4:07 PM, Bill Frantz <[hidden email]> wrote:
>
> When I went back to New Hampshire last Christmas, I decided that the trip would be a rag chew trip. Since the only radio I had was the Small Wonder Labs PSK-20 -- The K3 is too big to carry and I don't yet have a KX3 -- it had to be rag chewing on 20M PSK. I found a number of people to chat with and had a good time on the radio.
>
> I have a few thoughts on how to encourage rag chewing. Since people are used to the "5NN QRZ" type of interchange, start chatting early in the QSO. I use macros for the boiler plate -- name, QTH, and call signs and use the keyboard for everything else. I'm lucky that after 40+ years as a computer programmer, I can type quite rapidly. Don't worry about typing slowly however. Rag chewing isn't a contest or a DX pileup.
>
> In my first exchange after exchanging call signs, I try to give meaningful signal reports, I'll start with:
>
> Hi OM, you are 569 569 569
> and then run my QTH macro. If the other OP has already sent a name I'll use it in place of "OM". Later in the QSO, if the other OP has already described the station, I'll try to include something about his station when I describe mine. By then we should be ready to branch out and talk about ARES/RACES, contesting, DX, WX, family, Christmas dinner -- anything that might come up.
>
> It doesn't always work, but then just move on and do/answer another CQ.
>
> As to being overpowered by strong stations, the K3 with a 250 Hz filter works wonders. However, for me, the real problem stations have been local running well under 50 watts. When you're in the target of a beam 1/4 mile away, it doesn't take much power to overload the A/D converter driving the computer.
>
> The PSK-20 doesn't have any narrow filters like the K3 does, but in New Hampshire there aren't any close by PSK operators either. I rarely see any New England stations on my waterfall. (20 meters is that way. I had a devil of a time working Nevada from the Los Gatos too.)
>
> Now there are times and places for rag chewing. Contests, DX pileups, and rare opening aren't them. At times when it is appropriate, try to encourage it.
>
> Cheers - Bill, AE6JV
>
>> On 2/23/14 at 2:46 PM, [hidden email] (Jack Chomley) wrote:
>>
>> I go hide on the WARC bands for PSK31 these days :-) Too many big guns on the other bands,  I have a hard time trying to filter them out, my receiver always gets swamped!
>
>> On 2/22/14 at 2:41 PM, [hidden email] (Gerald Manthey) wrote:
>>
>> I agree with Don! I like to chat, learn about the op or Qth. It is a major
>> draw back to Jt 65 or Jt9.
>>
>>> On Feb 22, 2014 4:26 PM, "Don Wilhelm" <[hidden email]> wrote:
>>>
>>> Doug,
>>>
>>> ...
>>>
>>> While I do use [PSK] occasionally, that factor and the preponderance of
>>> "hello, brag sheet, goodbye" QSOs has soured me on the mode.  It used to be
>>> a lot of keyboard to keyboard ragchew QSOs, but that is rare these days.
>>> No opportunity to get to know something about the ham you are in QSO with.
>
> -----------------------------------------------------------------------
> Bill Frantz        | I like the farmers' market   | Periwinkle
> (408)356-8506      | because I can get fruits and | 16345 Englewood Ave
> www.pwpconsult.com | vegetables without stickers. | Los Gatos, CA 95032
>
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

W6NF
In reply to this post by Bill Turner
Minimum power to accomplish your communication goals, Bill. That still
*is* part of the FCC regulations, is it not?

Jack, W6NF/VE4SNA

On 2/22/2014 5:45 PM, Bill Turner wrote:

> ORIGINAL MESSAGE:          (may be snipped)
>
> On 2/22/2014 2:05 PM, Doug VE3VS wrote:
>> If you, or
>> anyone else uses much higher power, that strongest signal will "take
>> over"
>> the passband on most receivers, spoiling other QSOs that are going on
>> at the
>> time.
>
> REPLY:
>
> This has been true forever, not just with PSK31, and this is why
> narrowband receivers were invented in the first place. PSK31 is a very
> narrowband mode so why not receive accordingly? Narrow your RX
> bandwidth down to 100 Hz or so and the problem goes away and everyone
> can run whatever power they like.
>
> 73, Bill W6WRT
>
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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Matt Zilmer-2
In reply to this post by WA7SPY
Hi Glenn,

Typically, the KX3 runs 5W to get 100W output from the KXPA100 (13 dB
gain).  There are minor varations due to calibration, but that's the
gist of it.

73,
matt

>Now in regard to the KX3 without the amp 2-3 watts is recommended for PSK31. What does 2 -3 watts driving the KXPA100 equate to for output power from the amp. I will be using the Elecraft cable set to integrate the amp. So from what I have read that means the PA menu is selected to on on the KX3. That means the power control on the KX3 is re-indexed. So does that mean it is safe to run in the 20-30 watt range with the amp without over driving the KX3 for PSK31?
>
>Glenn Maclean WA7SPY

Matt Zilmer, W6NIA
www.elecraft.com
831-763-4211  x129
Skype: matt.zilmer

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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Bill Turner
In reply to this post by W6NF
ORIGINAL MESSAGE:          (may be snipped)

On 2/22/2014 6:20 PM, Jack wrote:
> Minimum power to accomplish your communication goals, Bill. That still
> *is* part of the FCC regulations, is it not?
>
> Jack, W6NF/VE4SNA

REPLY:

Of course it is. Nothing I said contradicts that.

73, Bill W6WRT

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Re: KPA100 recommended max power for digital modes?

Lynn W. Taylor, WB6UUT
In reply to this post by Don Wilhelm-4
... and I would have asked "why are you running more?"

PSK-31 is not a QRO mode.

It's also not necessarily a weak-signal mode, so comments about the
various JT modes do not apply to PSK-31.

73 -- Lynn

On 2/22/2014 2:26 PM, Don Wilhelm wrote:
> While low power may have been the recommendation, I started in PSK31
> in 2000 when I had only a K2/10.  I ran it in the 5 to 10 watt range.  
> When I revealed my power level, many ops asked why I was running only
> that much power.
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